The Happy Prince – Oscar Wilde

20200218 The Happy Prince

This book has as its full title The Happy Prince and Other Stories as there are three more short tales by Oscar Wilde included although easily the most famous is The Happy Prince. As I read this story it seemed familiar although I’m quite certain that I haven’t read it before I must obviously have maybe heard it or read a summary at some point. All of the stories carry a moral so lets look at the four stories individually, they are short so not giving away the ending in a review is tricky but I think I have managed it…

The Happy Prince

The prince in the story is actually a statue on a high pedestal looking out over the city, the statue is covered in gold leaf, has emeralds for eyes and a ruby set in the pommel of his sword and he is far from happy. The young prince he is modelled on however led a ‘happy’ and sheltered privileged life not seeing anything outside the luxurious palace grounds and not knowing anything of the poverty that surrounded his domain, so the statue became known as The Happy Prince. Up here on his column however he can see the poor all around him and wishes he could do something to help them. He is visited by a swallow seeking shelter for the night on his delayed migration to Egypt which is why he is flying alone after the rest of his kind. When the statue tells the bird of how he wants to help the people he comes up with a plan to donate the riches that he has on his body to the needy and enlists the help of the swallow to distribute what he can. The story is heartwarming but ultimately tragic and I really enjoyed it.

The Young King

This concerns another happy prince within his gilded cage although this time he is about to become king and he has not always lived this life of privilege. This one however is enamoured with the riches that surround him, lost in wonder in front of great art and fine fabrics and jewels. The coronation is coming the robe, sceptre and crown are prepared when the night before the ceremony the young king to be has three strange dreams. In them he is confronted with the reality of how his ceremonial raiment has been made, the grinding poverty of the weavers, the death of a pearl fisherman, the deprivation of the mines needed for the fine jewels. The next morning he explains his dreams to the courtiers come to dress him for the ceremony and refuses to wear the outfit prepared, preferring a more lowly guise of the goat-herder he had been before being recognised as the heir apparent. At this point I was sure I knew where the story was heading but I’m glad to say I was wrong.

The Devoted Friend

My least favourite of the four stories, perhaps because it just repeatedly bangs the reader round the head with the moral, where the devoted friend turns out to really be the one who doesn’t consider himself the title character. I confess that I got irritated by the story as Wilde kept pushing his point

The Model Millionaire

The shortest of the stories also includes my favourite quote from the selection with Wilde employing the barbed wit for which he is famous. The story concerns an impecunious young man who whilst visiting an artist friend finds him painting a portrait of a beggar. Now the young man is in love, but the father of his beloved has made it clear that as he has little money and no prospects of getting any he is not considered an appropriate suitor for his daughter. Despite this he hands the beggar most of the money he has on him only to find his generosity repaid handsomely. What is the quote I liked so much, well it makes much of a fine distinction.

Trevor was a painter, indeed few people escape that nowadays. But he was also an artist, and artists are rather rare.

The cover of the book is a detail from a painting by James Pryde and is perfect to represent The Happy Prince on his column. The book is part of the Penguin 60’s series, published in 1995 to mark 60 years of Penguin Books. I bought all of them at the time and I’m ashamed to say still have a lot of them to read twenty five years later.

Ringworld – Larry Niven

20200211 Ringworld

What must be Larry Niven’s best known book was originally published fifty years ago and remains a classic of Science Fiction and for the most part the scientific basis of the potential futures and situations depicted is largely founded in reality. This is more than can be said for the image used on the cover of my copy, see above, where the artist has fundamentally misunderstood the concept of the Ringworld, we should be seeing the world from above in the lit squares not from the side.

The main protagonist, Louis Wu, is celebrating his 200th birthday as the novel starts and has decided to prolong the experience by using ubiquitous matter transmitters in the non-specified future that the book occurs in to skip to a city in a time zone one hour earlier just before midnight wherever he is. This makes the book unique in science fiction as far as I am aware by starting in Beirut, even if by the end of the first page we are already in Budapest. It is during one of these hops from city to city that he is diverted, something that apparently should be impossible, and the novel which initially appears to be dealing with future Earth takes a leap that would ultimately lead us to Ringworld.

The diversion was organised by a member of the alien Puppeteer race which should also have been impossible as they had left ‘known space’ centuries earlier so what was one doing on Earth? It turns out that he is looking for a very specific crew for an expedition to investigate an artefact that he won’t talk about and for their fee he will provide blueprints and a working version of a new type of starship that can travel at speeds thousands of times faster than any other ship…  So much has happened and we are still only four pages into a novel that runs to 283 pages in the 1977 paperback from Sphere (ironic publishing house considering the subject matter) that I have. A definite page turner…

As we get to understand the various races brought together for this journey we discover that all of them are struggling with the issues caused by overpopulation and the exploitation beyond sustainable limits of the various planetary resources that they have all faced. This is a novel concerned with ecology well before it was fashionable and the different races have come up with very different solutions to the problem. Puppeteers are forbidden sex without difficult to obtain permission so have gone the all so difficult abstinence route. Another crew member is a Kzin (basically a race of intelligent and warlike eight foot cats) and they fight amongst themselves if food gets difficult to obtain, however they have also fought several wars against mankind which they have lost fairly convincingly which have also heavily reduced their numbers of potential breeding males.

The humans of Earth have introduced strict limits to the number of children that a person can have although they have largely avoided the problems China had years after this book came out by having specific exclusions from the limit including paying a large sum of money on the basis that being able to afford the fee suggests a certain ability that is worth preserving (it also removes the temptations of bribery). More importantly for the plot of the book there is also a lottery for the right to reproduce and Teela who joins the crew is from the fifth generation of people who all won the lottery. Are humans breeding for luck? It certainly seems so and so she was selected as a lucky talisman for the expedition despite having no other skills that would make her an obvious candidate but the Puppeteer spent a long time trying to find the hundred or so people that fit the category.

Ringworld, when they finally get there is potentially the ultimate solution to population problems being cylindrical in form and a million miles wide from side to side, with a radius of almost ninety million miles, surrounding a sun whilst rotating at 770 miles per second to replicate an almost Earth like gravity by utilising centripetal forces. There are also great plates in an orbit of the sun inside than that of the ring which provide for day/night periodicity.  Niven states that the surface area is equivalent to three million Earths, it’s actually more like 2.87 million assuming the maximum values for radius and width that he gives but it does at least mean that he worked it out. But who built this enormous object and why, and also why does it have Earth like gravity and day/night sequences? Those are the main questions of the book and what Louis, Teela, Neesa the Puppeteer and Speaker to Animals the Kzin apparently have to answer. Along the way we will also discover why the Kzin kept losing their battles with Earth and also just what, or who, was behind the birthright lotteries.

The book is very well written as befits a Hugo and Nebula awards winner but I wasn’t entirely satisfied with the ending. Like the wire that becomes so critical to the solution there are too many loose ends that don’t get sorted out with the way they leave the Ringworld.

The Trial of Charles I

As I start reading this book it is 371 years to the day (January 30th 1649) since the execution of King Charles I and the events that led up to initially the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland later that year and then by 1653 the Protectorate under the control of Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell. The republic he founded turned out to be somewhat less of a democratic state than its founders hoped, relying on military force to control the country rather than popular support. The appointment of Cromwell’s third son, Richard, as Lord Protector on the death of Oliver in 1658 and thus replacing one hereditary leader with another did little to suggest that getting rid of the monarchy had led to significant change and eventually led to the Restoration in 1660 with King Charles II taking his place on the throne. It’s a fascinating period of British history so I’m looking forward to tackling this slim volume published by the Folio Society in 1959 and bound to resemble a book from Charles I’s own library.

20200203 The Trial of Charles I

The book is split into six sections, the first is a really good summary of the reign of Charles I and the issues that led to the Civil War and the subsequent trial after Charles lost the conflict. This twenty six page introduction is written by noted historian C V Wedgewood and she succeeds admirably in setting the scene for the remainder of the book which is made up from contemporary sources.  These take us from 13th November 1647 when Charles fled to the Isle of Wight hoping to avoid parliamentary forces and maybe get across the channel to France right through to his funeral in February 1649. The texts come from two sources and are interleaved as they cover the time period. Initially we come to Sir Thomas Herbert who was Groom of the Bedchamber throughout the book and was therefore in constant contact with the King right up until his death, the second source is John Rushworth who was a lawyer and collected information about any court cases that interested him and therefore is the best non-partisan recorder of the trial and its aftermath.

Thomas Herbert provides a lot of interesting background to the incarceration of Charles in the Isle of Wight and thence Windsor and ultimately St James in London for the trial itself. Although by inclination a Parliamentarian he provides a fair and balanced account of the Kings actions during this time and the publication of his account helped considerably with the improvement of the regard Charles was held in when it revealed the calm and dignified way he acted at all times compared to the treatment he received from his captors. Rushworth’s account of the trial itself, relying as it does on transcripts paints a clear picture of what would now be regarded as a kangaroo court where the decision of guilt had already been made before they started, the only question was if Cromwell could persuade enough judges to pass the death sentence. Charles is brought before the court and legitimately challenges the legality of the process. In fact there was no actual basis in law for Parliament to sit as a court and they were well aware of this as his repeated challenges simply result in adjournments to the next day whilst they try to come up with a legal argument. In the end Parliament simply ends up with the effective position that this is a legal court because we say it is and will not allow dissent from this statement. Unsurprisingly, after a couple of days of ‘evidence’ where Charles was not allowed to attend let alone challenge anything given against him they decided on the death sentence that Cromwell had wanted from the first.

We then switch back to Herbert’s account of Charles’s last few days, which are spent in prayer and in trying to do what he can for his children. Rushworth is used again for a description of the execution before we return to Herbert to cover the funeral. These three sections are a lot shorter than the first two but again show the King in a favourable light. What is particularly interesting is the use of these two contemporary sources, I learnt about the Civil War at school and we probably covered the entire period of this book in one lesson being more concerned with the start of the conflict and the battles rather than the capture and trial of King Charles I. This book is an extremely interesting addition to my knowledge of this part of British history, for instance I didn’t know that the Scottish parliament had written to the English one complaining about the way they were handling the situation as Charles was also their King and they certainly didn’t want him executed.

There are four brief appendices, the most interesting of which concerns the death warrant itself and the changes made to it which suggest that it was written earlier and then had to be amended to fit the ultimate date along with two names that have been written over ones subsequently removed. It appears that the decision of the judges was more fluid than the Parliamentarians would have liked.